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The act was repealed in 1973, allowing Hutterites to purchase land.
This act resulted in the establishment of a number of new colonies in British Columbia and Saskatchewan and at the same time there was expansion into Montana and eastern Washington in the 1940s and 1950s.
Some Hutterites converted to Catholicism and retained a separate ethnic identity in Slovakia as the Habans until the 19th century (by the end of World War II, the Haban group had become essentially extinct).
At this time the number of Hutterites had fallen to around 100.
After sending scouts to North America in 1873 along with a Mennonite delegation, three groups totaling 1,265 individuals migrated to North America between 18 in response to the new Russian military service law.
Of these, 400 identified as Eigentümler (literally, 'owner') and shared a community of goods. Named for the leader of each group (the Schmiedeleut, Dariusleut, and Lehrerleut, leut being based on the German word for people), they settled initially in the Dakota Territory; later, Dariusleut colonies were established in central Montana.
This has changed in recent years and colonies have started to depend a little more on outside sources for food, clothing, and other goods.In the most severe case, four Hutterite men subjected to military draft who refused to comply were imprisoned and physically abused.Ultimately, two of the four men, the brothers Joseph and Michael Hofer, died at Leavenworth Military Prison from mistreatment, after the Armistice had been signed ending the war.Some of the abandoned structures from the first wave still stand in South Dakota.In 1942, alarmed at the influx of Dakota Hutterites buying copious tracts of land, the province of Alberta passed the Communal Properties Act, severely restricting the expansion of the Dariusleut and Lehrerleut colonies.Hutterite communes, called "colonies", are all rural; many depend largely on farming or ranching, depending on their locale for their income.More and more colonies are getting into manufacturing as it gets harder to make a living on farming alone.Originating in the Austrian province of Tyrol in the 16th century, the forerunners of the Hutterites migrated to Moravia to escape persecution.There, under the leadership of Jakob Hutter, they developed the communal form of living based on the New Testament books of the Acts of the Apostles (Chapters 2 (especially Verse 44), 4, and 5) and 2 Corinthians—which distinguishes them from other Anabaptists such as the Amish and Mennonites.Over 130 years, their population recovered from 400 to around 45,000.Today, most Hutterites live in Western Canada and the upper Great Plains of the United States.